What Is Unix And Linux – Before moving on to the history of Linux and Unix. There are a few things you need to know.
When it comes to Linux, we first need to go back in time to learn about another name, Unix.
What Is Unix And Linux
Unix is an operating system that has been developed for a long time at AT&T Bell Labs. The project was led by two well-known computer scientists, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie.
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The official development of Unix began in 1969. summer, and the first version of Unix was released in 1971. in March, and the second version in 1972.
What you don’t know is that if you type the date command on a Linux computer or MacOS… you get a number called a Unix Timestamp. This is the number of seconds since 00:00:00 in 1970. January 1 And why in 1970 January 1st, then you probably got your answer by now. This was when Unix was being developed.
It was Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie who developed the B programming language, which was supported by earlier versions of Unix. Then, in 1972, Ritchie rewrote B and improved it to become the C programming language, a programming language that is still very popular today. Most of the later Unix components were written in C.
In the late 1970s, AT&T shared Unix with educational institutions and outside commercial organizations, resulting in many different versions of Unix. The most prominent of these is the educational version developed by the Computer Systems Research Group at the University of California, Berkeley. This version is commonly known as Berkeley Software Distribution or BSD.
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BSD was originally built on the codebase and design of Unix, but later Unix and BSD versions became more and more distinct, leading to the “standard” “wars” between the BSD version of Unix and the BSD version of Unix. . AT&T’s version of Unix, codenamed System V. In the end, victory belonged to System V. Later versions of BSD brought System V closer to learning and incorporated generally accepted standards.
The BSD branch ended its historical development with the emergence of open source projects such as FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD. The last version of BSD was released in 1995. Meanwhile, the last version of Unix was developed by Bell Laps, Unix version 10, released in 1989.
Although development of BSD, the official version of Unix, stopped long ago, their legacy is still huge. Many operating systems, from close to open source, are based on these two branches.
The closest source is probably Apple’s popular MacOS. In addition to macOS, Apple’s other operating systems currently include iOS, watchOS, and tvOS, which are based on the BSD platform. Also, macOS is one of the few operating systems that was considered Unix-like when it received the Single UNIX specification. We’ll talk more about the Unix type concept at the end of this article.
Unix Vs Linux
Evolving Unix in 1983 an important event took place that later laid the groundwork for a major coup.
In 1983 in September, Richard Stallman announced the launch of the GNU project (GNU stands for GNU’s not Unix) 😅
The goal of the GNU project is to create a free, Unix-like operating system in which people have the freedom to copy, create, modify, and distribute software without restriction on distribution.
In 1985 Richard founded the Free Software Foundation, or FSF, a non-profit organization that wanted to promote the freedom of software development.
Structure Of Unix Os.
The GNU project has produced many important products, such as the GNU Compiler Collection (gcc), the GNU Debugger, the GNU Emacs text editor (Emacs), the GNU build machine (make)… Most widely used today: GNU General Public License (GPL)
The GNU project has had many great successes, creating many Unix-like tools. However, it is still missing an important component of GNU, the final one that turns it into a complete operating system. It is the kernel that manages the control and communication with the hardware devices (CPU, RAM, devices, etc.).
In 1991 August 25 Linus Torvalds, a Finnish student, introduced a personal product that would later become the Linux kernel. Linus wrote in his Usenet newsgroup:
I’m developing a (free) OS (just a hobby, it won’t be big and professional like gnu) for a 386(486) AT clone. This one is getting ready and has been getting ready since April. Since my OS is somewhat similar to minix (among other things, the same physical filesystem layout (for practical reasons)), I’d like to get some feedback on what people like/dislike about minix. I have now ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40) and everything seems to be working. That means I’ll get something practical in a few months […] Yes – no minix code and multi-threaded fs. It is NOT portable (uses 386 task switching etc) and probably won’t support anything but AT hard drives as that is all I have. […] Mostly C, but most people don’t call my writing C. It uses every imaginable 386 feature I could find, as this was also a project to teach me about the 386. uses MMU for paging (not to disk yet) and segmentation . It’s the segmentation that makes it REALLY dependent on the 386 (each task has a 64Mb code and data partition – 64 tasks at most 4Gb. Strong cookies for anyone who needs more than 64Mb per task). […] Some of my C files (especially mm.c) are almost as compiler-friendly as C. […] Unlike Minix, LIKE interrupts also occur, so interrupts are handled without trying to hide their cause.
How Are Bsd, Unix, And Linux Different?
The combination of the Linux kernel and GNU software created the first completely free operating system. Its name is GNU/Linux.
In fact, there are still many misconceptions about Linux. I myself had a very long misunderstanding
There are also some things that you can find out after reading the article from cover to cover.
…is the same whether it’s running on macOS or Linux. But that day I realized that they are two different tools. Running
Unix, Unixporn, Linux, Arch Linux, Command Lines
On Ubuntu I get an entry for the GNU version and on Mac I get a BSD version. Of course, most GNU and BSD (Unix) tools will be the same for each option, but there are exceptions.
Don’t be surprised if you occasionally encounter a different command situation on your Mac than the one you still use on your Linux computer.
And the solution is very simple to use the same command in Linux. just install the GNU version on your Mac instead of the default version. Fortunately, they are very stable and can be easily installed in use
Linux is just a kernel, and GNU provides tools to work with that kernel. But we are free to decide the configuration of the kernel, how the software will be installed and used.
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Some organizations and companies help us do this by combining the Linux kernel with a utility or package manager to create a complete operating system distribution. These are called Linux distributions or distributions.
There are many Linux distributions available today, many of which are very well-known and popular. There are many distributions that you may not have heard of before. Some of the most commonly used distributions are: Ubuntu, Debian, CentOS, Fedora, Redhat, Linux Mint…
Distributions can be built on top of each other so that one can be considered a descendant of the other. Therefore, the aforementioned Distros actually have many close relationships with each other.
The 2 oldest distributions (and still active today) are Slackware and Debian. They were created in 1993. I don’t know much about Slackware descendants, but Debian descendants are really big fish in a small pond.
Linux Vs. Unix: What’s The Difference?
Debian’s descendants branch is also probably the largest distribution. Besides Debian, the highlights of this branch are Ubuntu (built on Debian), Linux Mint (built on Ubuntu) or Kali Linux.
Also, another famous branch of the Distro is Redhat, and the main Distro is Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), one of the Distros for dev Redhat Enterprise customers. Apart from RHEL as a paid distribution, Redhat also offers another free distribution to the community which is Fedora.
In fact, Fedora releases are usually tested first for feedback and bug fixes, then RHEL is built on top of a stable Fedora release. In addition, Redhat provides free source code for almost all RHEL components, and the community can create an RHEL-like distribution.
The most prominent of these is CentOS (Community Enterprise Operating System). CentOS is a community product (not supported by Redhat), completely free with the desire to provide an Enterprise-quality Distro similar to RHEL (of course, the free stuff is not the same as the paid stuff, but CentOS is still highly regarded)
What Is Difference Between Unix And Linux In Tabular Format?
To work and get familiar with Linux, in my personal opinion, it will be a duo of Ubuntu (or Debian) and CentOS