What Is The Linux Kernel

What Is The Linux Kernel – “The Linux kernel is the core of a Unix-like computer operating system. The Linux kernel is the most widely used operating system kernel worldwide; the Linux operating system is based on it and is installed on traditional computer systems, typically as Linux distributions and embedded devices such as routers.

As with most Linux things, this is a very cryptic statement. But today we will explain what Linux kernel is in a way that people can understand.

What Is The Linux Kernel

That explains everything, doesn’t it? If you’re like me, not at all. You can read about all the categories in the picture above and find some things. But we can make it even simpler.

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Perfect is just five words and three different colors. As you can see the kernel is a barrier between applications, CPU, memory and devices. Apps are something that people use all the time, from video games to the internet.

For an application to work properly, it needs certain parts of the computer (video cards, memory, etc.) where the kernel comes from. The kernel and applications have access to the hardware components of the computer. Without the kernel. , the hardware doesn’t know how to interact with anything else.

So, if we keep things simple, the Linux kernel can be described as a piece of software that takes the hardware of a computer and allows applications to use that hardware.

This is the Linux kernel, where we have Linux distributions. Each distribution uses (basically) the same Linux kernel, but they are all slightly different. Some distros are for specific purposes, such as booting Linux on ZYBO, while others are more personal in style. QCon London (March 27-29, 2023): Embrace the right new trends to solve complex engineering challenges. Register now.

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Thomas Graf talks about how companies like Facebook and Google use BPF to fix 0-day exploits, how BPF is forever changing the way we add features to the kernel, and how BPF is introducing a new type of application deployment method for the Linux kernel .

Thomas Graf is the founder and CTO of Isovalent and creator of the Cilium project. Prior to that, he was a Linux kernel developer at Red Hat for several years. Over 15 years working on Linux kernel and involved in various networking and security subsystems. In the last two years he participated in the development of BPF and XDP.

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Graf: My name is Thomas Graf, and perhaps the best description is a long-time core developer, but I recently founded a company called Isovalent and co-founded Cilium with the team. This won’t be a pure talk about Cilium, I’ll talk more about Linux kernel revisions and why it’s happening.

Linux Kernel Configuration

Who remembers this age before us? Well, many people remember. Before 2000 this website looked like this, many websites looked like this website.

How do we get from the websites we spend most of our time in the web browser to the age where we look left to left, you see right? We’ve gone from simple web pages displaying pretty GIFs to large applications running in web browsers. What has helped this development in nearly 20 years? We’ve gone from just markup – and I’m using HTML 2.0 questions for comments here – to an era where we mostly use programming platforms.

I’m a kernel developer, so I’m not familiar with all these JavaScript frameworks, but there are tons and this is basically what I’m doing. Of course, there’s more to it, but basically, it’s programming that allows you to move from static websites to applications that run in web browsers. Why is this important and why is it important for the Linux kernel? We’ll get to that.

Before going into some basic programming terms, what does it mean to create a programmable system like JavaScript that runs a web browser? First, we need the concept of security. If you allow untrusted code to run in a web browser, it needs to be isolated, it needs to be sandboxed in some way, it needs to be secured.

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We need continuous delivery. If we expand our application, if we innovate, if we require the user to install a new web browser, if you have to install a new web browser, no one will use any application, any web-based application. This was the age when browsers had to be updated to new versions and it was very confusing for users. We’re not used to it, we’re used to automatically getting updates for websites and browsers quickly. You probably won’t even notice that you’ve updated your Chrome at this point, and you won’t notice, for example, that a website has changed the backend unless there’s some visual appeal or some sort of visual change. All these are happening continuously and continuously. If you post a new version of your app, you have millions of users on that website, and you want to update it regularly. Any programmable system must have an understanding of continuous delivery and continuous updates.

The final aspect is performance. If we achieve programmability and we give up performance, programming is impossible. A good example of this is the early stages or early years of Java, where there was a huge performance penalty. That went a long way back, but initially the difference between the cost of running Java, or running a C++ application on a Java application was huge.

Like JavaScript, before JIT compilers, running JavaScript added a significant amount of CPU usage to a user’s laptop or end-user machines. Various aspects of programming require an understanding of the local implementation, and in many cases, this is done with just-in-time compilers or JIT compilers, where some understanding of the normal bytecode is translated to your machine’s CPU. Run actually understands that, so we’re getting as close to native execution speed as possible.

The second aspect where we can’t put the two pieces together is to do a super quick – not a deep dive, but a super quick – introduction to the kernel, what does the Linux kernel look like? There are roughly three parts: We have the userspace – the kernel​​​​​​​​​​ Then the hardware is down. Then we have the application decoupling process, some tasks running in user space, and hardware at the bottom level. I made this storage and network very simple. Of course, there are many pieces of hardware involved, but I’ve made it as simple as possible.

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So the first thing the kernel does is abstract it using something called a driver. The kernel, of course, needs to understand and operate the hardware, but it doesn’t want to expose this complexity directly to applications. This introduces the first level of abstraction, so the Linux kernel understands: “I know block devices,” “I know network devices,” “I know I/O devices,” “I know “console” and so on, that The first is. The level of abstraction. Like, we have the system calls that this application calls to communicate with the Linux kernel, there are many, I have given some examples here.

If you want file I/O, read and write, it allows you to read files, write to files, and send and receive messages. This application uses for network interaction, sending data over BSD socket or TCP socket. This kernel opens up user space in your applications, and this is where the kernel provides guarantees in terms of backward compatibility. The API doesn’t change, we allow applications to continue if the core is actually being developed.

So we have middle layers, middleware in between. It’s logic, it’s business logic, like virtual file systems, process schedulers, networking, TCP/IP firewalls and technology and so on, it’s all in between.

And then the last piece is the person who actually runs the system. It used to be a real person, today it’s all automated and it’s done through the configuration API. finished

Pdf] Conceptual Architecture Of The Linux Kernel